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                美国人疫情期间离职成本有多高,这款工具算得明明白白

                美国人疫情期间离职成本有多高,这款工具算得明明白白

                Lee Clifford 2021年01月07日
                这款工具能够根据薪资损失以及对个人退休储蓄金和社保的影响,来计算离职的总财务成本。

                离职的代价不仅仅是你的薪资。

                美国进步中心(Center for American Progress)推出了一款工具,它能够根据薪资损失以及对个人退休储蓄金和社保的影响,来计算离职的总财务成本。

                结果可能会让人大吃一惊。

                例如,如果一名年收入达10万美元的35岁妇女休假两年,那么其损失不仅仅只是20万美元的薪资,同时还涉及134,524美元的薪资增长和111,767美元的退休资产收益损失,总损失将达到446,291美元。如果她将休假年限延长五年,那么损失将达到1,020,936美元。

                尽管美国进步中心推出的这个工具是为了凸显美国儿童看护?;?,但有鉴于一大批父母自2020年春天开始被迫改变其工作日程或彻底离职来照看小孩,这款工具也给出了一个新的审视视角?!痘⒍儆时ā罚╓ashington Post)的民调显示,“美国超过四分之三的母亲和半数父亲称自己为了照看孩子而放弃了工作机会、调换了工作,或是辞职?!比肥?,美国进步中心开发这个计算器的经济师迈克·马多维茨称,自1986年以来,我们从来没有看到过女性就业和劳动力参与率降到过如此低的水平。马多维茨写道:“不管是因为岗位丢失的原因还是出于照看家庭的需要,或者两者兼而有之,美国2020年的政策失败可能会导致一代女性失去其职业?!?/p>

                明尼那波利斯联邦储备银行(Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)的米斯蒂·黑杰尼斯与美国人口普查局(U.S. Census Bureau)在最近发表的工作论文中得出了类似的结论。她写道:“总的来说,新冠疫情的出现似乎立即让照顾学龄儿童的职场母亲出现了专属的手忙脚乱局面?!焙诮苣崴狗⑾?,“受早期关停令停影响,与学校关停较晚各州的职场母亲相比,学校关停较早各州的职场母亲出现‘有工作但不上班现象’的概率要高出53.2%?!保ㄋ狗⑾终庖坏愣灾俺「盖谆蛎挥醒Я涠闹俺∨悦挥杏跋?。)

                一些公立学校并未恢复现场授课的事实令很多专家尤为恼火,因为没有证据证明学校在传播病毒,尤其是在年幼的孩子之间,而学校的关闭让美国家庭失去了一项重要的支持。黑杰尼斯说:“儿童看护和上学不仅对年轻一代人力资本的开发至关重要,同时对全职父母,尤其是母亲来说也是至关重要的政策干预?!?/p>

                再者,白人母亲所感到的这些压力对黑人和拉丁裔母亲来说更是不堪重负。正如美国进步中心所提到的那样:“尤为显著的是,黑人、拉丁裔以及土著女性——所有那些面临着多重压力的女性,会感受到来自于多方面的影响,包括更大的失业风险、作为必要员工在一线工作,以及独自解决其儿童看护挑战?!?/p>

                对于那些往往比配偶挣得更少、寿命更长的母亲们来说,马多维茨称:“在儿童看护和上学问题因为新冠疫情而加剧之前,休假的机会成本对父母来说已经就够惊人的了,但这个可怕的数学问题依然没有任何变化?!保ú聘恢形耐?/p>

                译者:冯丰

                审校:夏林

                离职的代价不仅仅是你的薪资。

                美国进步中心(Center for American Progress)推出了一款工具,它能够根据薪资损失以及对个人退休储蓄金和社保的影响,来计算离职的总财务成本。

                结果可能会让人大吃一惊。

                例如,如果一名年收入达10万美元的35岁妇女休假两年,那么其损失不仅仅只是20万美元的薪资,同时还涉及134,524美元的薪资增长和111,767美元的退休资产收益损失,总损失将达到446,291美元。如果她将休假年限延长五年,那么损失将达到1,020,936美元。

                尽管美国进步中心推出的这个工具是为了凸显美国儿童看护?;?,但有鉴于一大批父母自2020年春天开始被迫改变其工作日程或彻底离职来照看小孩,这款工具也给出了一个新的审视视角?!痘⒍儆时ā罚╓ashington Post)的民调显示,“美国超过四分之三的母亲和半数父亲称自己为了照看孩子而放弃了工作机会、调换了工作,或是辞职?!比肥?,美国进步中心开发这个计算器的经济师迈克·马多维茨称,自1986年以来,我们从来没有看到过女性就业和劳动力参与率降到过如此低的水平。马多维茨写道:“不管是因为岗位丢失的原因还是出于照看家庭的需要,或者两者兼而有之,美国2020年的政策失败可能会导致一代女性失去其职业?!?/p>

                明尼那波利斯联邦储备银行(Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis)的米斯蒂·黑杰尼斯与美国人口普查局(U.S. Census Bureau)在最近发表的工作论文中得出了类似的结论。她写道:“总的来说,新冠疫情的出现似乎立即让照顾学龄儿童的职场母亲出现了专属的手忙脚乱局面?!焙诮苣崴狗⑾?,“受早期关停令停影响,与学校关停较晚各州的职场母亲相比,学校关停较早各州的职场母亲出现‘有工作但不上班现象’的概率要高出53.2%?!保ㄋ狗⑾终庖坏愣灾俺「盖谆蛎挥醒Я涠闹俺∨悦挥杏跋?。)

                一些公立学校并未恢复现场授课的事实令很多专家尤为恼火,因为没有证据证明学校在传播病毒,尤其是在年幼的孩子之间,而学校的关闭让美国家庭失去了一项重要的支持。黑杰尼斯说:“儿童看护和上学不仅对年轻一代人力资本的开发至关重要,同时对全职父母,尤其是母亲来说也是至关重要的政策干预?!?/p>

                再者,白人母亲所感到的这些压力对黑人和拉丁裔母亲来说更是不堪重负。正如美国进步中心所提到的那样:“尤为显著的是,黑人、拉丁裔以及土著女性——所有那些面临着多重压力的女性,会感受到来自于多方面的影响,包括更大的失业风险、作为必要员工在一线工作,以及独自解决其儿童看护挑战?!?/p>

                对于那些往往比配偶挣得更少、寿命更长的母亲们来说,马多维茨称:“在儿童看护和上学问题因为新冠疫情而加剧之前,休假的机会成本对父母来说已经就够惊人的了,但这个可怕的数学问题依然没有任何变化?!保ú聘恢形耐?/p>

                译者:冯丰

                审校:夏林

                It’s not just your salary.

                A tool from the Center for American Progress (CAP) allows anyone to calculate the total financial toll of leaving the workforce based on loss of salary but also the hit to your retirement savings and Social Security.

                The results can be dramatic.

                For instance, a 35-year-old woman who makes $100,000 and takes a two-year break from the workforce loses not just $200,000 in salary, but $134,524 in lost wage growth and $111,767 in lost retirement asset benefits for a total loss of $446,291. If she extends that break to five years she stands to lose $1,020,936.

                Though the Center for American Progress launched the tool to highlight America’s childcare crisis, it is newly relevant given the number of parents (and particularly women) who have been forced to alter their work schedules or leave the workforce entirely to provide childcare since last spring. A Washington Post poll found that “more than three-quarters of mothers and half of fathers in the United States say they’ve passed up work opportunities, switched jobs, or quit to tend to their kids.” Indeed, as Michael Madowitz, an economist with the CAP who developed the calculator, notes, we have not seen women’s employment and labor force participation rates this low since 1986. “Whether it’s the push of job loss, the pull of care at home, or both, U.S. policy failures in 2020 risk a lost generation of women’s careers,” writes Madowitz.

                Misty L. Heggeness of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and U.S. Census Bureau came to a similar conclusion in a recent working paper. “Overall, the pandemic appears to have induced a unique immediate juggling act for working mothers of school-age children,” she wrote. She found that “mothers with jobs in early closure states were 53.2% more likely than mothers in late closure states to have a job but not be working as a result of early shutdowns.” (She found no effect on working fathers or working women without school-age children.)

                The fact that some public schools have still not reopened to in-person learning has been particularly galling to many experts, given that—especially among younger age children—schools have not been shown to be spreading the virus and that it removes an essential support for American families. As Heggeness puts it, “Childcare and schooling are not just essential for the human capital development of our youth; they are also critical policy interventions for the full employment of parents, especially mothers.”

                And once again, any strain that white mothers may feel falls even harder on Black and Latinx mothers. As CAP outlines: “Black, Latinx, and Indigenous women especially—all of whom face intersecting oppressions—are also feeling the multiple effects of being more likely to have lost their jobs, being on the front lines as essential workers, and solving their childcare challenges on their own.”

                For mothers—who already tend to earn less and live longer than their partners—Madowitz concludes: “The opportunity costs of taking time off were already striking for parents before the childcare and school-access problem got even worse with COVID, but the grim math is still the same.”

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